Webstore, MATLAB installer quits after configuring Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable
Once the installer has completed configuring Microsoft Visual C++ you will need to restart your computer before the changes become effective. Once you have restarted your computer, launch the Matlab installer again and the process should proceed as expected.
Why does the MATLAB installer quit after configuring Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable?
If that doesn't help, try restarting the machine in Safe Mode and running Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable installer directly from /bin/win32/vcredist_x86.exe or /bin/win64/vcredist_x64.exe